Glossary

A

Absolute dry weight: the weight of cellulose minus its total humidity.

Alkaline paper: paper made under alkaline conditions pH >7, with synthetic resins and Calcium Carbonate, characterized by high permanence, opacity and whiteness.

Alvo da Moda® Report (Fashion Target Report): product forming part of the cut-paper line of products, developed in partnership with the ‘Fashion Targets Breast Cancer’ campaign, the income from it is directed towards the licensing of projects organized by the Brazilian Institute of Cancer Control (IBCC).

APPs (Permanent Preservation Areas): an area protected by the terms of the relevant legislation that is either covered by natural vegetation or not, and where the environmental function is to preserve water, the landscape, geological stability, biodiversity, fauna, flora, protect the soil an safeguard the well-being of the local populations. These areas are located along rivers and waterways, around lakes, ponds and both natural and artificial reservoirs of water, at springs and hillocks, hills, mountains and mountain ranges, as defines by the law.

B

Bale: units of fibrous raw materials, pulp and mechanical pulp to facilitate handling and transportation.

Bamboo: native graminis that are find in some regions of Brazil. Bamboo is one of the fastest growing plants in the world and because its fiber is short, it has been used to obtain pulp.

Biomass: the amount of organic material produced on a determined are within a piece of land. The biomass is capable of generating gases which area transformed into energy by means of the decomposition of materials such as dung, wood, remmants of foodstuffs and agricultural and agricultural residues.

Black liquor: liquid mixture which remains after the digestion in the pulp production process.

Bleachability: the ease of bleaching pulp after cooking, determined by the amount of chlorides or permanganates.

Bleaching: chemical treatment of cellulose, mechanical pulp and, in some cases, wood pulp in order to whiten or remove non-cellulosic colors existing in the slurry, increasing the whiteness of the final product.

Bobbin: paper or card manufactured in a continuous strip, uniformly rolled around a cardboard spindle or tube.

Brightness: the percentage of light of some determined wavelength reflected in the product surface. Papers of high brightness produce higher contrast of black graphic inks and more vivid appearance of color inks.

C

Calcium hypochlorite: obtained through a reaction between chlorine gas and quicklime and used in the bleaching process.

Carbon Credits: carbon gas emission reduction certificates received by companies with activities which draw carbon from the atmosphere. Those companies which do not manage to reduce their emissions may compensate for this through the purchase of these credits.

Causticizing system: an operation in the sulfate process (reaction between Aquicklime and clarified green lixivium) to form soda and calcium carbonate. A complete causticizing installation converts sodium carbonate into sodium hydroxide, clarifies obtained white lixivium and recovers quicklime through calcination of quicklime slurry.

Cellulose weight: the absolute dry weight of cellulose and its dry weight in air. Commercially, cellulose is always sold by its dry weight in air.

Cellulose-obtaining processes: chemical processes to obtain cellulose. A substantial portion of non-cellulosic material is removed from the vegetable fibers, mainly lignin. The process itself includes cooking, scrubbing, washing and bleaching, in addition to the equipment involved in the processes.

Centrifugal Separators: used to separate sand and heavy impurities during the scrubbing of cellulose.

Cellulose unit: the difference between a sample weight and the weight of the same sample when dried to a constant weight. This unit is used commercially to calculate the dry weight in air and absolute dry weight of cellulose.

Chemithermomechanical pulp: pulp obtained through conventional processes, in which wood strips are impregnated with chemical products. The process is mainly used on hardwoods, resulting in a pulp that substitutes the conventional mechanical pulp from coniferous trees.

Chemical pulp: cold soda pulp. Produced through a modern variation on the chemithermomechanical process used for hardwoods. Normally includes bleaching to improve color.

Chips: pieces of wood run through a chipper to obtain pulp.

Chipper: Machine that cuts wood into chips by using a blade.

Chloride: a gas obtained from electrolysis of sodium chloride or cooking salt and used in the first stage of pulp bleaching.

Chlorine dioxide: a chemical product used in the bleaching sequence.

Clone or cloning: the production of identical individuals through either a natural of artificially induces process resulting in the creation of genetically identical copies of a living being of a micro-organism, vegetable or animal origin. The individuals resulting from cloning, the clones generally have the same genotype or the same genetic heritage.

Coated Paper: paper made from bleached chemical pulp, coated with a layer of pigments, with a gloss or matt finish, and used in high quality printing. Coated on both sides, its applications include magazines, calendars, manuals, upscale reports, works of art, books and promotional materials to name a few. When the coating is applied on just one side, the application is mostly for packaging, labels and stickers.

Cooker: equipment used to cook the pulp, in which material and chemical products are placed under high temperatures and pressure.

Cooking: operation conducted using fibrous cellulose material in order to remove a large part of the non-cellulosic material, mainly lignin, and produce pulp to be utilized under normal circumstances.

Coniferous wood: a generic term applied to wood extracted from a certain type of tree from the Gymnosperm class. The cellulose from this type of wood is generally softwood. In Brazil, the most utilized coniferous wood is the Paraná pine.

Continuous cooker: cookers in which fibers are continuously added through a special feeder and extracted from the opposite end using an extraction valve.

Copy Paper: type of non-coated writing paper, used in copiers or computer printers as well as for xerography and mimeograph and offset reproduction.

Curling: product curling is due basically to three causes: the structural difference between the two faces of the product and its exposition to high or low relative humidity; cutting very close to the reel core or inefficient work of the decurler; and application of humidity in the product surface during printing, so that the product tends to enter into equilibrium with the environment. Curling of cutsize papers is controlled during manufacture process, so the paper should remain flat after passing through the copying machines. Printing papers should not present curling, otherwise problems will arise in the feeding of printing machine and in binding or finishing equipment. Papers of smaller grammage present a greater tendency to curling. To avoid curling, it is required to maintain a correct humidity and temperature control of the printing or copy room. Another measure: to take the product to the room 24 hours before opening the boxes or removing the wrapper of the paper, especially during wintertime. Papers with large differences between faces, such as the one-side coated papers, are treated by the manufacturer in order to minimize the curling effects.

Cut-size Paper: term used to refer to any paper cut in standard sizes: A4 (210 x 297 mm); Legal (216 x 330 mm) and Letter (216 x 279 mm). Available in packs of 100 or 500 sheets.

D

Debased area: an area which, due to natural causes or human activity, has lost its natural capacity to generate return.

Digester: another name for a cooker.

Dry weight in air: weight of cellulose with 90-100 percent humidity. This is the weight at which cellulose is sold internationally.

E

Ecological corridors: areas of natural or semi-natural ecosystems, connecting conservation units and other natural areas, allowing for the free movement of species.

Energy forest: forest plantations, be they composed of native or non-native species, where the prime purpose is the production of energy and biomass in a renewable form and which substitute the wood coming from native forests and fossil carbon sources in power generation.

Eucalyptus: hardwood tree with a fast growth rate – around 6 to 7 years in Brazil – which forms the principal source of raw materials for the manufacture of pulp and short fiber paper.

Evaporation: a part of the recovery system, in which black lixivium from the washing of slurry after cooking is concentrated to allow for burning in the recovery boiler.

F

Felt side and wire side of the paper: this refers to the product upper surface (felt side) and back side (wire side) made on the in conventional flat table machine. A paper produced by a machine with double wire (duo-former) presents very small differences between both surfaces. The wire side has less quantity of mineral filling and fine particles than the felt side, and thus is more resistant to picking filling and presents less tendency to crease when folded. It is the selected side, whenever possible, for the printing of dense areas. The felt side, however, has better printability.

Fiber: particle originating in wood or other vegetable sources, employed in the paper manufacturing process. They can be short or long. Pulp fibers originate in hardwoods, such as eucalyptus where their length extends to around 1mm. Long pulp fibers originate in softwoods, such as pines, where their length extends to around 3mm.

Fiber orientation: this refers to the fiber alignment. It is called machine direction or longitudinal when its flow takes place in the direction of the product manufacture. The direction perpendicular to this last direction is the transversal (or cross direction). The combined effect of fiber direction and humidity variation directly influences the result of the printed product. In flat offset printers, the product should have its fiber direction in parallel to the printing cylinders. With the opposite direction, the product presents greater stiffness and performance, especially when the grammage is low. The product is more easily folded and presents less tendency to crease in the fold when the folder is parallel to the fibers. For this reason, when binding, the fibers should stay parallel to the back of the book, this avoids waviness or distortions and allows the book to remain open by itself.

Fiber plate: sheets or plates made up of wood fibers bound together with resins then compressed. Used in the construction of houses as well as other final products.

Firebreak: vegetation-free area of land surrounding the properties and forested regions which forestalls the spreading of fire or burning in general provides a route for transport in order to conduct the inspection and monitoring of the areas.

Flash-drying: a modern process to dry pulp after being mechanically pressed in which fibers are removed by hot gases that pass through the material in one or more stages, after which the material is pressed.

Forest productivity or average annual growth: the annual rate of growth in volume of wood in a determined area of a plantation.

Forest residue: the residue from the harvest process is all the organic forest material that remains in the area after it, such as bark, treetops or branches.

Formation: describes the product structure and the way the fibers are interweaved. It is a relative propriety, since good formation in one type of product can be considered unacceptable in other product. The product with good formation prints with less mottling and presents more uniform opacity.

G

Genetic Improvement: this takes place in gender-based reproduction and is the degree of variation of an individual's genetic content, making genetic combinations possible, thus guaranteeing the genetic variation of its descendants.

Grammage: it is expressed in g/m², and is the weight in grams of a product sheet having an area equal to 1 m². The grammage influences the other product proprieties such as thickness, opacity and printing performance in conversion and final use equipment. Grammage control is very important when utilizing reel products, since the total printed area obtained can suffer alteration.

Green liquor: liquid mixture made up of Caustic Soda, Sodium Sulfide and water that removes lignin and protects the pulp in the wood cooking process.

H

Hardwood: or broad-leaf trees; a generic term applied to wood extracted from a certain type of tree from the Angiosperm class. The cellulose from this type of wood is characterized by short fibers, or hardwood. In Brazil, eucalyptus is the hardwood most utilized in cellulose production.

Hardwood pulp: originate on short fiber wood species with broad leaves, typically eucalyptus, birch aspen and mixed hardwoods. The hardwoods are harder than the softwoods because the fibers are shorter. Shorter fiber makes for denser cellulose fibers, but also for weaker cellulose. Thus, hardwood is well suited for copy paper.

Hard Cooking: the cooking of wood with limited action to remove non-cellulosic fibers.

Hectare: a metric land measurement equal to 10,000 square meters.

I

J

K

Kappa number: indicates level of lignin in cellulose on a broader scale than thepermanganate number.

Holocellulose: the term used to designate the fraction of carbohydrates from cellulose after the lignin is removed.

L

Legal Reserve Area: legally defined portion of a rural property which should be set aside for the preservation of natural, ecological processes and the sheltering and protection of native fauna and flora. Brazilian legislation requires the preservation of areas containing natural springs, as well as an established percentage of the property in accordance with the local biome. In the Atlantic Rainforest, for example, the minimum area designated for preservation should be 20% of property, 35% in the ‘Cerrado’ (‘Brush land’) and 80% in the Amazon Rainforest.

Lignin: organic substance which makes up the main tissue in wood, giving it consistency and cementing pulp fiber together. Lignin can be one of the impurities in the manufacturing process of pulp and can be used as fuel in recovery boilers.

M

Mechanical Resistance: these are measured by resistance tests - bursting, tearing, traction and folding. All papers to be printed need resistance to run in the printers at normal velocity.

Bursting Resistance: is the hydrostatic pressure required to break the product when it is submitted to a constant, uniformly distributed force applied to one of its sides. Considered to be a general indicator of product resistance, it is associated to stiffness and breaking strength. Bursting resistance decreases when the mineral load content increases.

Tear resistance: is the strength required to tear the product for a fixed distance after the tear begins. The product has greater resistance to tearing in the direction perpendicular to the fibers (transversal). The longer the fiber, the greater the tear resistance.

Traction resistance: is the maximum strength the product supports under determined conditions before rupture. Of little importance in the case of paper in sheets, it is fundamental in applications of papers in reels.

Folding resistance: is the number of double folds that the product can support under tension before rupturing. In general, there is greater resistance in the direction perpendicular to the fibers. Long fibers, with a high degree of interweaving, produce papers more resistant to folding. The humidity content strongly influences resistance.

Mechanical pulp: material obtained from wood, in which the wood is cut into adequately sized strips, debarked and cleaned, to be ground on rotating grindstones, which are generally synthetic. Generally, after being ground, the pulp passes through a flat scrubber to remove chips and pieces of wood. More advanced installations have rotating scrubbers that work at low concentrations, removingstems, while centrifugal separators remove sand. The final quality of the pulp depends on the wood, the type of grindstone or disk and the manner in which it is ground. The main characteristics of pulp are uniformity, color, cleanliness, dryness and durability of the fibers.

Minimum cultivation: cultivation technique which retains the residue from the harvest (leaves, husks and branches) on the land itself, in order to build the nutrients in the soil, protect it from erosion and preserve the humidity.

Moisture Content: the quantity of humidity the product contains expressed as a percentage of total weight. The fibers absorb water internally as well as on the surface; they expand when absorbing and shrink when losing water. Dimensional alterations provoke a stronger variation perpendicular to the fibers due to the increase in their diameter. This is the main reason for the register distortion in the printing process. Loss of humidity to the environment causes product shrinkage along the external edges of stacks and reels, making them stretch while leaving the center loose. A gain of humidity causes the product edges to get loose. In order to reduce these distortions, the product should be maintained packed with moisture proof material till the moment of use.

Mosaic planation: forest plantation system adopted by Suzano, where the plots have narrower path, are interspaced with native vegetation and are diversified according to age and alternate with conservation areas, forming ecological corridors so that fauna and flora can freely circulate.

Multiple effect evaporator: the name given to equipment used to evaporate water in black lixivium produced by washing, allowing it to be burned lateroven in the recovery boiler.

Multiple forest use: forest management which envisions the positive exploration of the wide range of resources and products that the forest has to offer, in a way that enables them to be used in a combined manner that better meets the economic, social and cultural needs of the population, with the minimum amount of waste of the basic offered by the soil and other environmental factors.

N

Nursery: location from which the majority of the seedlings used by Suzano in the eucalyptus plantation originate. Suzano currently has nurseries located in the states of São Paulo, Bahia, Maranhão and Piauí.

O

Offset Paper: printing paper, coated or uncoated, made from bleached chemical pulp. This kind of paper can have different finishes such as smooth, fabric, aged-look, textured, bleached or colored.

Opacity: this is the measure of light absorbed by the product. When the light strikes the product, part is reflected, part is absorbed and part is transmitted through the product. The opacity question is particularly important in front and back side printing. The lack of opacity (transparency) reduces the contrast of the printed material. Mineral filling disperse the light and increase the product opacity. Mechanical pulp and non-bleached fibers absorb light and increase opacity as well.

P

Paperboard: line of paper for packaging and promotional materials. What differentiate it from other types of paper is its heavier grammage, greater thickness and rigidness.

Planting field: plantation area with the same characteristics and which is subjected to the same silviculture management process.

Planted forests: forests intentionally produced by human beings and which are the sources of raw materials for a number of ends and contributing decisively to the preservation of native forests. Their presence reduces the pressure on the native forests, allowing the recovery of debased areas and the conservation of soils.

Porosity: the resistance of a product to penetration by air. The porosity of uncoated paper is moderate, while coated paper is relatively non-porous. The product’s level of porosity depends on the manner in which it is produced. A softwood product is much more porous than a hardwood product. Porosity affects the absorption of graphic ink and the penetration of adhesives and glazes.

Precision silviculture: this is a group of technologies and procedures (electronic devices installed in the machines or the implements) applicable to various stages in the cultivation of diverse cultures, such as that of the eucalyptus. The objective is to increase the efficiency of the management of the culture through customized cultivation for each unit area, generating information before and during the operations.

Pulp: natural polymer (chemical compound with a high molecular mass) with a complex structure which forms the main component of the fiber cell walls in wood and other vegetable forms used in the manufacture of paper.

Q

Quicklime: calcium oxide. Used as a caustic ingredient in green lixivium in systems to recovery chemical products from alkaline processes.

Quicklime kiln: a kiln that is part of the causticizing system to add calcium to the calcium carbonate resulting from kiln slurry, allowing for the recovery of quicklime which is later used to causticize green lixivium during the sulfate process.

R

Ream: packet with 500 sheets of paper.

Receptivity to Graphic Ink: receptivity or absorption is the propriety that determines the quantity and velocity with which the graphic ink penetrates the product. The degree of absorption of the product surface influences the drying process of inks and the phenomena related to drying. High absorption rapidly absorbs the fluid components of ink and prevents the blockage effect; low absorption promotes anchoring and brightness. The equilibrium point is not well delimited and depends on other variables besides the product. For this reason, the ink proprieties should be adjusted to the product, which, in turn, should uniformly accept the graphic ink. A very smooth product of low porosity requires and absorbs a lesser quantity of ink.

Reciclato®: the first 100% recycled paper produced in Brazil on an industrial scale, using pre- and post-consumption wood shavings. 75% of its composition uses pre-consumption shavings (left-overs) and 25% uses post-consumption shavings (material taken from the sale of this paper is returned to socio-environmental projects arranged by the Ecofuturo Institute.

Recovery boiler: a boiler with a special furnace to burn concentrated black lixivium. In the boiler: the water remaining in the lixivium is evaporated and the solid material decomposes into carbon, inorganic salts and volatile gases, with the carbon burnt in the presence of air. The lixivium extracted from the boiler oven is called green lixivium. The burning generates vapor, which is used in the process. Gases that leave the boiler carry solid particles that are captured in the venturi or electrostatic precipitators.

Recovery system: a group of operations to recover chemical products used in cooking. The recovery cycle begins with washing (black lixivium from cooking is extracted) and moves to evaporation (to concentrate lixivium to be burnt in a recovery boiler). Green lixivium from the boiler is clarified and moves on to causticizing, thereby being transformed into while lixivium, which is stored to be used in cooking.

Recycled Paper: paper manufactured from used paper pulp, bleached and free from ink, or made from trimmings, which undergo treatments which give them a high level of purity.

Report Carbono Zero® (Report Carbon Neutral): product forming part of the cut-paper line of products which has the carbon emissions generated during its production compensated for through the restructuring of areas of native Atlantic Rainforest.

Responsible Forest Management: a set of technologies and management practices which combines the plantation of eucalyptus in an economically feasible manner and the conservation of natural, environmental preservation and respect for local communities.

S

Scrubbing: the phase in the pulp production process between washing and bleaching, in which impurities are removed from pulp in scrubbers, which are generally rotating, and sand, separated by centrifugal separators.

Senninha Report ®: product forming part of the cut-paper line of products, which has a social impact, with the amount paid in the licensing for use of the ‘Senninha’ character being directed towards helping the children and adolescents being assisted by the Ayrton Senna Institute. Available in packages of 100 sheets in numerous colors including white, blue, yellow, green, pink and ‘salmon’.

Silviculture: science applied to cultivation, maintenance and the use of the forests.

Sizing: the product can be manufactured without gluing, with internal gluing or with internal and surface gluing.

internal gluing avoids, or retards, the penetration of water and other fluids, although it is not waterproof or resistant to moisture. It does not prevent the penetration of the ink vehicle into the product.
external gluing, in addition to the above, improves the surface resistance of the product, the graphic ink anchoring and resistance to abrasion, to traction, to folding, etc.

Smoothness: this refers to the surface flatness of the product and affects the functional proprieties as well as appearance. Short fibers produce smoother papers than long fibers. Smoothness is usually measured by a test of airflow through the product sheet. In general, the smoothness decreases when the grammage increases. The other factors influencing smoothness are the mineral load content and calander pressure intensity. A smoother product will result in clearer printing.

Soda: sodium hydroxide.

Sodium sulfate: the recovery boiler is used to make up for losses in the sulfate process. This chemical is reduced in the presence of carbon, forming sodium sulfate and releasing carbon dioxide.

Sodium sulfide: formed in the recovery boiler through the sulfate process. Together with sodium hydroxide, it forms white lixivium or cooking liquor in the sulfate process.

Softwood pulp: extracted from vegetables with fibers measuring over three millimeters. Coniferous wood and textile fibers (cotton, hemp, sisal, neoglaziovia and ramie) are included in this category. The most used softwood in the country is pine from Paraná.

Splinter brush: a horizontal brush used to separate splinters by size and separate chips and pieces of wood. These are typically employed in one or two stages.

Stationary Cooker: a fixed, non-rotating cooker. Normally, cookers used for wood are vertical, cylindrical and stationary.

Stems: name given to groups of fibers that were not broken down during cooking and are later separated by rotating scrubbers.

Stiffness: this is the product’s capacity to resist flexion caused by its own weight. It is basically determined by the relation between product grammage and thickness. Theoretically, product stiffness varies in accordance with the third power of thickness, that is, if thickness is doubled the stiffness increases eight times. Stiffness decreases to the degree that mineral filling, humidity and the calander degree of the product increase. Low grammage papers usually cause feeding problems in the printers, for this reason, they are fed with the fiber direction opposite to the recommended direction. All papers are stiffer when folded transversally to the fiber direction.

T

Thermomechanical pulp: wood pulp that has been treated with steam in an autoclave before grinding.

Thickness: this is expressed in millimeters (mm) or microns (mm, a thousandth part of millimeter). Thickness is the perpendicular distance between the faces of the product sheet. Its uniformity ensures printing uniformity and performance in the conversion processes. The product body is the result of the relation between thickness and grammage. Its index compares papers of different volumes with the same grammage.

Trails: open space to enable the removal of wood.

U

Uncoated Paper: paper without a coating which has a rough surface when compared to coated paper and which has higher ink absorbency and lower ink saturation.

V

W

Washing: after cooking and draining, the cooked slurry is diluted and washed using vacuum filters. The washing operation serves to purify fibers and recover residual lixivium.

Wood pulp: the same as mechanical pulp.

Y

X

Z

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